1. Development of new raw materials. At present, in the rubber industry, the dependence of tires on natural rubber is still very large, and the proportion of use is continuously rising; while in industrial products, natural rubber is continuously decreasing and the amount of resin is increasing significantly. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a new generation of synthetic rubber that can meet the requirements .
1) Develop a synthetic rubber that can completely replace natural rubber. Due to the breakthrough progress of polymer design technology, adjustable molecular weight polystyrene butadiene rubber has appeared and has been successfully used in tires, realizing another revolution in tire materials. The output of this rubber is constantly expanding, and it may exceed traditional styrene-butadiene rubber in the future. Some scientists are recommitting to the research of new synthetic natural rubber to break the monopoly position of natural rubber.
2) Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) has both the physical and mechanical properties of rubber and the dual character of plastics processing. It is a completely new generation of synthetic rubber that has begun to replace some traditional synthetic rubbers and has a promising development prospect. At present, the global production and sales of thermoplastic elastomers have exceeded 1.2 × 106t, accounting for more than 8% of the production and sales of rubber. Now, many industrial products and rubber shoes have begun to use TPE materials in large quantities, which is growing rapidly at a rate of 7% to 8% each year In 2010, it can reach more than 2.5 × 106t.
TPE greatly simplifies the production process of rubber products, waste can be recycled, and it can reduce the mixing power. It has become an ideal material to replace traditional rubber. The biggest disadvantage is that the heat resistance is low, generally does not exceed 80 ℃ ~ 100 ℃, the hysteresis loss is also large, so the expansion of development is greatly limited.
3) Liquid rubber. Liquid rubber is the most fundamental way to revolutionize the rubber industry process. It changes the complex energy-consuming solid-phase processing to short liquid-phase processing, eliminating the need for bulky and large-scale processing equipment, greatly simplifying the molding process, and integrating the material mixing and molding vulcanization.
The most noticeable of liquid rubber is polyurethane elastomers, which have reached more than 1 million tons. Among them, footwear and microcellular elastic foam materials have consumed more than 300,000 tons and elastic fibers 1 × 105t. Has been successfully used in many rubber products such as tape, hose, rubber roller. In recent years, people have used it to mass produce slow tires such as bicycle tires, solid tires, industrial tires and agricultural tires. They are durable and can be painted in a variety of colors, changing the traditional black product of traditional rubber products for many years. The disadvantage is that the cost price cannot be reduced, and the mechanical strength when used as a skeleton cannot be compared with fiber materials.
4) The use of high-strength rubber to add new rigid reinforcing fillers, in order to achieve the purpose of not using a fiber skeleton. This is another direction of research and development of the rubber industry today. Its advantage is that it can make full use of existing production equipment, simplify the product structure, reduce costs, and improve competitiveness. Similar studies include: maintaining regular structure, using high-tech extended crystalline rubber such as cross-polymerization and photo-polymerization, etc.
2. Development of new processes. The current research and development of new processes in the rubber industry is mainly focused on molding and vulcanization. In terms of molding, the focus is on reducing the number of processes and precision machining. Research and implement calendering, precision of extrusion, and compounding of materials, so as to simplify and integrate molding. Such as car tires, braided hoses, steel rope conveyor belt forming automatic production lines. The research direction of vulcanization is to try to combine with the molding linkage to implement the integration and continuous integration of molding and vulcanization. Automatic hose, tape, condom, and glove production lines are now available. The main measures for new process development are:
(A) Control the whole process with PLC and CPU to realize computerized rubber processing, equipment automation, high-precision products, and free production control. (B) The methods of ray vulcanization, microwave vulcanization, oil carrier vulcanization, and ultrasonic preheating vulcanization are used to shorten the vulcanization time and improve product quality performance. (C) Through the high-performance motor and high-efficiency transmission mechanism, the rubber processing machinery is further automated, miniaturized and functionalized, and the goals of saving resources and venues are gradually achieved. (D) Use small-scale sensing technology, laser technology, IT technology, etc. to check the quality specifications and appearance defects of rubber, semi-finished and finished products, detect the on-site production environment, and monitor production line safety and accident alarms.
Specific to rubber products: (a) The main point of tire production technology is molding as the center, to achieve partial automation and precision, and to further reduce the cost, make tires more high-performance, simpler and lighter. Quantification. (B) Conveyor belts and transmission belts are oriented towards the mechanization of processes to achieve the goal of saving labor and manpower, and strive to integrate rolling, molding, and vulcanization, and use high-performance and multifunctional materials to simplify product structures, reduce costs, and achieve environmental protection and energy saving Claim. (C) For rubber hoses, small-diameter hoses (5-50mm) are mainly used to produce the entire process from rubber compounding to molding and vulcanization. Large-diameter hoses (200-900mm) are trying to get rid of manual work and reduce Labor intensity and increase production efficiency. (D) Tapes and other large industrial products (such as rubber rollers, fenders, anti-vibration devices, etc.) are operated by mechanized flow and robotic hands to save manpower and improve efficiency; by implementing system control and simulation technology, uniform and reliable quality And life is guaranteed.
In short, the production technology of the world rubber industry is developing in the direction of two poles. On the one hand, it is the pursuit of low cost (including improving production efficiency and using cheap raw materials) to simplify the product structure and streamline the process; on the other hand, it is further moving towards higher performance (including improving characteristics and increasing functions) and reducing heterogeneity. The difference guarantees the quality completely. To sum it up: improve quality and reduce consumption, high performance and low cost.
Looking forward to the new process of mixing, the way out lies in the emergence of new rubber materials and the change of existing material forms. For example: (a) development of new liquid rubber, using liquid mixing method; (b) research of new powder rubber, use of powder mixing method; (c) in the natural rubber park, synthetic rubber production plant in advance, in the state of latex Wet rubber is made by wet method, and then mixed; (d) The granulating agent is granulated in advance to make it easy to uniformly disperse, shorten the mixing time and improve the quality of the rubber; (e) use a compatibilizer
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